Glosario de términos
Finishes: These are the extra applications that are included in the print to improve the appearance of the job. The types of finishes are: bindings, folds, cuts, perforations, climbs, laminates, varnishes, prints, dry blow, UV inks / varnishes, among others.
Elevation: In bookbinding, the process of properly arranging the pages or sheets to form the body of a document or book that is later to be bound.
Final Arts: In prepress, before computers entered design, a final art was the material already fully prepared for its passage to photoliths using the reproduction techniques appropriate to each process. At present, it could be said that a final art is the digital material already prepared to be sent to the printing press without the need for any further retouching or intervention (the imposition of forms is already understood outside the final art).
Varnish: Creates surface effects such as shine, matte or silky. Depending on the application, it can serve as protection, gloss and matte finish, or enhance effect. There are different varnishes such as UVI varnish, overprint varnish, Braille varnish, scent varnish, metallic varnish, etc.
Bridles: Piece of fabric, leather or paper that is placed on the foot and head of the book. Nowadays it is only decorative but originally it had the mission of reinforcing the union of the specifications.
CMYK: abbreviation in Spanish, corresponding to the English acronym CMYK, little used to refer to the process. The initials correspond to “Cyan, Magenta, Yellow and Black” primary colors on the print.
Cliche: Typographic Plate in which a composition or an engraving has been reproduced for later printing.
Quality control: Systematic planning, measurement and control of the combination of labor, material and machines that participate in the manufacture of a product so that it complies with the established levels of quality and performance of the company.
Cutting: Margins cleaning process to leave a finished print.
Sewn: Process to join together the sheets (deliveries) of a publication. A synthetic or vegetable fiber thread is used.
Colophon: Paragraph carried by some books, in which the printer, material and Ephemeris of the day the printing is finished are mentioned. (it’s not mandatory).
Credits: Book sheet where it appears in addition to the author’s name, edition number, ISBN number, Legal Deposit number, printing (it is not obligatory to put in which printing company is printed, but if the country), intellectual property text, etc. This credit sheet is normally placed at the beginning of the book.
CTP (Computer to plate): Graphic arts technology that uses computers to directly print offset or flexo printing plates; without using films (negative or positive). The “automatic” process replaces photomechanics to obtain the plates.
Quadruple: Type of folding 4 bodies.
Body: the paper space between folds. A diptych has a central fold and two bodies. A quad has 3 fold lines and 4 bodies.
Legal deposit: It is up to the client to request it. It must appear in all printed publications.
Diptych: Brochure consisting of a sheet of paper folded in half, usually small, which is usually used as an invitation to an event or as an informative resource about a product or service. Folded into 2 bodies.
Gluing or milling rustic binding: Glue action. In this type of binding, the sheets are gathered, once folded and raised, in a single block (gut). The spine of the book is milled, that is, it is “scraped”, producing small indentations in the paper that will help the glue to penetrate more easily in the subsequent gluing process, joining the glued sheets with more force to the book cover. The cost and production time of this type of binding is less than the stitched rustic binding.
Delivery: Sheet of 8, 12, 16, 24 and 32 folded pages, ready to sew. Each sheet is a delivery.
Stamping: It is the process of marking, by means of pressure and heat, a shape on a support.
Dry stamping: Mark a relief on both sides of a support.
Flexography: it is a high relief printing system (the areas of the plate that print are higher than those that should not print). The ink is deposited on the plate, which in turn directly presses the printable substrate, leaving the stain where it has touched the surface to be printed.
Brochure: Small document of advertising material containing information about a product, system or service.
Advertising Brochure: Document of variable length that aims to publicize products or services and that contains information not only of an advertising nature but also regarding the use, advantages, functions, etc.
Flyer: Translated into Spanish as a “flyer”, the flyer is an advertising resource in printed format (although it can also be applied in the digital world) in which something of a brand or company is advertised or presented.
Guardians: They are essential in hardcover books. Leaf that joins the casing (inner leaves) to the deck. Front and rear guard.
Grammage: Weight of 1 square meter of paper / cardboard.
Stapling: placement of 2 staples in magazines or brochures with multiple pages.
Crease: groove that is made by squeezing thick papers, cardboard and cardboard to facilitate folding.
Rotogravure: it is a printing system based on the incision of a design on a metal plate or cylinder that, later, will be filled with ink to transmit, by pressure, the image to the support. This system can be applied to both manual and rotary presses.
ISBN: Intellectual record that must appear in the credits of all books. (national) It is obligatory only in those who have planned its sale.
ISO: Acronym for International Standardization Organization, International Organization for Standardization. International entity dependent on the UN, with headquarters in Geneva, which establishes standards referring to the technical characteristics of products and services, as well as the qualitative characteristics of goods to standardize products and industrial processes, in order to facilitate international exchanges .
Printing: Reproduce one or more times a certain pattern taken from an original, either physical or digital.
Know How: know how.
Laminate: Consists of adhering a sheet (gloss or matte) of material to the support (paper, cardboard …)
Spine: Part of the bound book in which the pages are fixed and with which the front cover is joined to the back.
Model: Drawing that provides the general appearance of a design, indicating, for example, the position of the text and illustrations. The term is also used in the context of preparing a design for reproduction.
Ecological Paper: Paper that has been produced using more environmentally friendly processes and bleached by oxygen or its derivatives or other chlorine-free procedures.
Coated Paper: Paper that has been made with a smooth coating on either one or both sides. This results in a much more compact, smooth surface with better light reflection properties.
PDF: Portable File Document, “Transportable Document File”. It is a storage format for digital documents independent of software or hardware platforms. This format is of the composite type (vector image, bitmap and text).
PEFC: Program for the Endorsement of Forest Certification – Recognition Program for Forest Certification Systems.
FSC: Forest Stewardship Council – Forest Stewardship Council, which guarantees a provenance of sustainably managed forests.
Folding: Operation that is carried out after printing and cutting by means of which the sheet is folded forming a signature. For this, a “folder” is used.
In brochures it is determined by the number of bodies it has. E.g .: Diptych, triptych, quadruple, 5 bodies, 6 bodies, Accordion, Window,
Prepress: This is the entire post-design process from when the client or user requests the printing service, until the final revision is carried out before sending it to print.
Among its phases are the collection of original documents, the treatment of texts and images, the assembly and assembly of the printed preview, as well as obtaining and sending it to print.
Bleed: Printed images that go beyond the edge of the paper so that when cutting the corresponding color or colors they reach the edge of the paper. The printer should print that area in size larger than the final cut. So the page is cropped by also trimming the indentation area.
Stamping: a printing method in which an engraving is used to transmit a sheet to the receiving surface and thus generate an enhancement in some areas of the print, through the combined effect of heat and pressure.
Hardcover: A type of book binding in which covers made of rigid cardboard are used and covered by some material for convenient decorative effects. The fastening of the sheets can be glued or sewn. It can also be called luxury binding.
Softcover: A type of binding whose covers are flexible and also cover the spine of the book.
It can also be called paperback.
Typography: It is the art of composing letters to communicate a message, and therefore its technique lies in the choice and use of “types” or “fonts”, as well as symbols that are part of a written text. It also includes the correct combination of fonts and designs and the distribution of spaces to obtain a pleasing aesthetic result. The “types” are styles or models of letters.
Layout: It consists of drawing, in real size, the different pages and elements that make up the printing specifications.
Climbing: A line of machine-punched dots made on paper to easily separate documents from their matrices.
Triptych: 3-body folding type.
Die: Any of the cutting elements other than the guillotine that allow obtaining finished products with shapes, usually not straight, for specific applications or effects.
Die Cutting: Used for clean cutting, splitting or perforation of irregular shapes.
Embossing or Dry Blow: Printing technique (or rather “finishing”) that consists of printing letters or images by pressing with a die and counter-die without ink or varnish (therefore it is “dry”) on a surface to leave a relief mark (bas-relief or high-relief, depending on the arrangement of the pieces). In some cases, heat is added at the same time.
UVI: Ultraviolet varnish applied on the impression.
UVI reserve: Ultraviolet varnish applied on the impression in a limited area.
Wire’o: It is a type of binding based on the union of sheets by means of a wire thread that forms double rings and that at the time of binding is inserted into the perforations previously made, then closed. It is similar to spiral binding, with the difference that in this case the wire is double, which gives the notebooks greater resistance to bending and a more aesthetic finish.